Palazzo Ducale. On top of that, Shakespeare introduces the pathological fear of ‘otherness’ and dark complexions that he had witnessed in his own culture. The answer is both. “First Flows of Jewish Migrants”; 2. The Lombard hordes, whose incursions into northern Italy began in ad 568, drove great numbers of mainlanders onto the islands of the lagoon, previously the homes of itinerant fishermen and salt workers. Migration waves first led to the institution of the Ghetto Nuovo (1516), then to the expansions of the Ghetto Vecchio (1541) and the Ghetto Nuovissimo (1611). Just how much Shakespeare’s audience saw of itself and London reflected back at them through his representation of Venice will never be known. The founding of the Venetian republic is also said to have been marked at that same event with the founding of the church of St. James. This exciting cross-cultural dialogue contributed to a global impression of Venice as a city of great opportunity, wealth and magnificence. But some good Collections of Studies and single- or dual-authored works illuminate the situation in the main interesting areas. In the 16th century, Jews were discriminated against especially in England and Venice. Vol. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Variorum, 2003. Apart from mentions of single Jews in the High Middle Ages, the history of Jewish communities in Venice and in many places of the Veneto began not before the Renaissance with a flow of Ashkenazic refugees escaping pogroms and expulsions in German lands during and after the Plague. Vol. The text in this article is available under the Creative Commons License. Nerissa – her waiting-maid 7. Turin, Italy: Einaudi, 1996. Some of her publications include Cosmetics in Shakespearean and Renaissance Drama, Edinburgh University Press (2006); Shakespeare's Globe: A Theatrical Experiment, Cambridge University Press (2008) co-edited with Christie Carson; Shakespeare's Theatres and the Effects of Performance, Arden (2012) co-edited with Tiffany Stern and The Hand on the Shakespearean Stage: Gesture, Touch and the Spectacle of Dismemberment, Arden (2016). Officially, Venice was founded in March 421, more precisely on March 25th, the day of the Annunciation of the birth of Christ. Apart from mentions of single Jews in the High Middle Ages, the history of Jewish communities in Venice and in many places of the Veneto began not before the Renaissance with a flow of Ashkenazic refugees escaping pogroms and expulsions in German lands during and after the Plague. [20] The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare believed to have been written between 1596 and 1598. We know from contemporary accounts that Venetians, Cypriots, Greeks, Jews and Turks lived on the island, which had been culturally diverse since the medieval period. Shylock– a rich Jew, … A good overview of the history of important Jewish communities in the Veneto around 1500. Coryat remarked that you will see ‘all manner of fashions of attire’, and that in St. Mark’s Square, ‘you may see many Polonians, Turkes, Jewes, Christians of all the famous regions of Christendome, and each nation distinguished from another by their proper and peculiar habits’. Finally, Henry lost patience with the Pope and rejected his authority and in 1534 the Act of Supremacy made Henry the head of the Church of England. Usage terms Altarpiece with St. James in the central panel. In the town the idea soon came up to separate the Jews, who had first been located in different quarters, in one marginal zone, in order to control them more effectively. A good study of social history, notably about the lower class of Venice. August 6, 2018 2 Comments. A collection of earlier published studies (1983–2002) about the ghetto (curfew time, Christian travellers), stigmatization, economy (charters of Jewish Merchants, moneylending in the Seicento), conversion (reversion of New Christians, forced baptism of Jewish minors), and Simone Luzzatto and the myth of Venice. “Gli inizi della Comunità ebraica a Venezia.” In The Jews and the Mediterranean Economy, 10th–15th Centuries. Reprinted in 1975 (New York: Schocken). Contradicting accounts of Venice from the period describe a city that ghettoised its ethnic minorities, while other accounts, such as those of Coryate and Sansovino, and images such as Carpaccio’s, describe a quite integrated and racially diverse society. The article tackles the significance of religion in the life of people and the role it plays fo ... Read More . Usage terms © The Miracle of the Relic of the True Cross on the Rialto Bridge, 1494 (oil on canvas) (see also 119437), Carpaccio, Vittore (c.1460/5-1523/6) / Galleria dell' Accademia, Venice, Italy / Bridgeman Images. Therefore, in 1516 the Ghetto Nuovo came into existence, serving as a model and name giver for the ghettos to come—but in contrast to some later examples, the Venetian ghetto quickly fostered a cultural heyday, with several synagogues that lasted until the 18th century and after. “Gli insediamenti askenaziti nell’Italia settentrionale.” In Gli ebrei in Italia. Vol. Why not take a few moments to tell us what you think of our website? Although some individual Jews had passed through Venice in the Middle Ages, legislation enacted in 1382 allowing moneylending in the city for the following five years marked the start of the authorized Jewish presence in the city, and at its expiration in 1387 a 10-year charter came into effect exclusively for Jewish moneylenders. 1. Blog. Live Chat. It is a city born in the sea, a Christian Venus born after the fall of Roman Empire caused by the barbaric hordes: his birth seems to promise a new epoch where pagan vision and Christian vision of the world would unite in harmony in one and the same free and sovereign person. Balthazar – a servant of Portia 8. Phone APP. Jewish men in costume for the festival of Purim. 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How to increase brand awareness through consistency; Dec. 11, 2020 Venice and the Marches. Over the course of the 16th century in Italy, concern with the religious and spiritual aspects of life became increasingly prominent. An account of artists whose styles or approaches were literally transformed by the example of Titian or Veronese would comprise a veritable “who’s who” of the seventeenth century and beyond, from Rubens and Velázquez to Reynolds and Delacroix. Although Henry broke with Rome he kept the Catholic religion essentially intact. Frankfurt: Lang, 1992. In the 16th century, Venice was a stage where those with means flaunted their material wealth in the form of textiles, jewels and accessories, ornamented boats, and other symbols. Some of the names are distinctly Venetian in form, with z taking the place of a soft g: Zuan instead of Giani, Anzola instead of Angela. In Shakespeare’s England the abhorrence of ‘otherness’ was profound, and this anxiety ripples upon the surface of Othello. It was the first and the largest trading power in the world, and they made most of their money from trading on the Mediterranean with its large trading fleet. Roman and Iberian Inquisitions, Censorship and the Index i... Royal Regencies in Renaissance and Reformation Europe, 140... Scholasticism and Aristotelianism: Fourteenth to Seventeen... Sidney Herbert, Mary, Countess of Pembroke, Women and Work: Fourteenth to Seventeenth Centuries. “Gli Ebrei e la città.” In Storia di Venezia: Dalle origini alla caduta. Venetian art, an introduction. Discussion of Venice and London in Florio's Italian language manual, Lift-the-flap picture of a gondola in the friendship album of Erckenprecht Koler, Description of the Battle of Lepanto in Knolles's, Galleries, Reading Rooms, shop and catering opening times vary. However, it reflects the state of research in the late 1970s. Hand-coloured view of Venice in Braun and Hogenberg’s opulent atlas of the world’s cities, 1600–23. Ashtor, Eliyahu. Ioly Zorattini, Pier Cesare. (Full citation at the end of the excerpts) In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, Venice was famed especially for three things: its riches, its republican system of government, and its reputation as Venezia-città- galante, a city of pleasure (Gaeta 60). Women of 16th Century Venice The Counter-Reformation played a major role in defining the role and status of Italian women during the sixteenth century. Venice - Venice - History: Uniquely among Italy’s chief cities, Venice came into being after the fall of the Roman Empire in the West. While the overwhelming majority of Elizabethans had never knowingly met a Jew, by the end of the 16th century, interactions between Jews and English were becoming more frequent, especially abroad, in Morocco and Turkey as well as in Antwerp, Amsterdam and Venice, where Jewish communities were flourishing. In response to the Church's shifting demographics, a new seminary was opened to provide a new home for some of the country's aging priests. this page. The figures in the painting are gathered at the Rialto, which was the economic centre of the city and where a great variety of different ethnic communities lived and conducted business. Lorenzo – friend of Antonio and Bassanio, in love with Jessica; Christian 5. This is in no way diminishes the artistic brilliance of the city. After the Italian turrmoil of the early 16th century, Venice entered a long and gradual period of decline. Edited by Girolamo Arnaldi and Gianfranco Folena, 537–576. Dec. 30, 2020. Expand or collapse the "in this article" section, Expand or collapse the "related articles" section, Expand or collapse the "forthcoming articles" section, Black Death and Plague: The Disease and Medical Thought, Church Fathers in Renaissance and Reformation Thought, The, English Puritans, Dissenters, Quakers, and Recusants, Japan and Europe: the Christian Century, 1549-1650, Monarchy in Renaissance and Reformation Europe, Female, Netherlands (Dutch Revolt/ Dutch Republic), The, Reformation and Hussite Revolution, Czech, Reformation and Wars of Religion in France, The, Reformations and Revolt in the Netherlands, 1500–1621. Christians believed that the Jewish race was inferior to them and that Jews should not be … Except for the short period of fifteen years (1383–1397) after the War of Chioggia, when moneylenders were necessary, Jews … First published in Rassegna mensile di Israel 44 (1978): 683–703. Ravid, Benjamin. Gratiano, Solanio, Salarino, Salerio – friends of Antonio and Bassanio; Christian 4. Antonio - a merchant from Venice; Christian 2. The city bustled with the activity of native Venetians as well as foreigners of all classes. Henry was keen to get rid of Catherine and marry Anne. Spain. Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1997. Sansovino says of the Jewish community in Venice, that ‘as a result of trade, the Jews are extremely opulent and wealthy, and they prefer to live in Venice rather than in any other part of Italy. Feb 6, 2017 - Explore Christine Lee's board "16th Century Venetian Garb - Masculine", followed by 122 people on Pinterest. The play opens with language that creates an extraordinarily ethnocentric atmosphere, but is this racial malevolence Venetian or English? However, Venice was not able to fully reconquer Crete until 1368. The Merchant of Venice is a 16th-century play by William Shakespeare in which a merchant in Venice must default on a large loan provided by a Jewish moneylender. This has to be one of my favorite portraits of all time. Edited by Gino Benzoni and Gaetano Cozzi, 273–300. The Venetian army led by Othello, an African Moor, consists also of a Florentine (Cassio) and perhaps a Spaniard as well: the name ‘Iago’ is Spanish, and would have invoked for Shakespeare’s audience the name Santiago Matamoros, Saint James, the Moor-slayer, patron saint of Spain. After the Italian turmoil of the early 16th century, Venice enters a long and gradual period of decline. Certainly from the sixteenth century on, the city was regarded as an essential stop-over by merchants, artists, and pleasure seekers from all of Europe. The following excerpts are from a paper by Eugenie R. Freed entitled: "News On The Rialto": Shakespeare's Venice." Vittore Carpaccio, Portrait of a Venetian Nobleman, 1510, Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on Toaff, Ariel. But what is clear is Shakespeare’s sense that the world he was living in resembled the one he was portraying: a diverse city full of arresting contradictions. What Venice was like in the 16th Century In the early 16th century the population of Venice was about 175 000 people. Bassanio – Antonio's friend, in love with Portia, mostly interested in her money; Christian 3. 21 Century. The costume of a Venetian merchant, 1598: Cesare Vecellio’s costume guide showcases diverse fashions from Venice and across the world. The Wall Street of 16th-Century Venice : THE GHETTO OF VENICE by Riccardo Calimani, translated by Katherine Silberblatt Wolfthal (M. Evans: $19.95; 400 pp.) In The Commonwealth and Government of Venice (1599), Gasparo Contarini notes the ‘wonderful’ interchange of ‘forraine people’ in the city. 1, Dall’alto Medioevo all’età dei ghetti. Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice, the history of the Republic of Venice traditionally begins with the foundation of the city at Noon on Friday, 25 March, AD 421, by authorities from Padua, to establish a trading-post in that region of northern Italy. Food in 16th Century Venice Sabine d'Ricoldi da Forli Venice was an Italian city unlike any other when it came to cuisine. Arts and humanities Europe 1300 - 1800 Italy, 15th century Venice and the Marches. By the 16th century, Carnevale celebrations extended from December 26 until Lent began, and masks could be worn all during this time. The English traveller Thomas Coryate’s early 17th-century account of his travels to Venice reveals that in the intervening century the city’s multi-cultural atmosphere had not diminished – rather the reverse. The city was slightly paradoxical since it had sumptuary laws governing dress according to social hierarchy, but such laws were rarely enforced and a newly rich mercantile class clothed itself according to its financial, rather than social status. Othello’s relationships with himself and to those around him reflect Renaissance imaginings of the exotic – of the cultural ‘other’ – that were at once glamorous and dangerous. This 15th-century painting, sometimes called ‘The Healing of the Possessed Man’, shows a bustling multicultural scene in the economic heart of Venice. Meanwhile in 1527 Henry began a relationship with Anne Boleyn. So this multi-ethnic society and the blurring of social boundaries that accompanied it did not come without a sense of anxiety, whether in the Venice or the England of that time. Venetian relations with the Ottomans may have been fraught with conflict (the war with the Turks is a constant presence in the background of the play), but there remained a rich exchange of material goods, culture and ideas with Turkish lands. However, at the end of the ten years, they had to leave, and officially no Jew could stay in Venice for longer than 15 days at a time, with exceptions made only for merchants arriving by se… Choose Yes please to open the survey in a new browser window or tab, and then complete it when you are ready. Venetians themselves recorded the confluence of ‘strangers’ in their city. 15th-century Spanish painting of Santiago the Moor-slayer, mounted triumphantly on a white horse and trampling the heads of Moors beneath him. “The Contracts for the Ashkenazim”; 3. Aldo Manuzio (Aldus Manutius): inventor of the modern book. Studies on the Jews of Venice, 1382–1797. Stephano – a servant of Portia 9. The Venetian school of the 16th century includes Giorgione, Titian, Veronese and Tintoretto; two centuries later Venice is home to … History of the Jews in Venice. Except for the short period of fifteen years (1383–1397) after the War of Chioggia, when moneylenders were necessary, Jews were not legitimized officially in the lagoon city before the beginning of the Cinquecento. This shouldn’t surprise us, for Venice in the late 16th and early 17th centuries – the period in which Othello is set and when Shakespeare wrote his play – was still home to people of a wide variety of cultural and ethnic backgrounds. Due Edited by Eliyahu Ashtor, 685–702. Vicenza, Italy: Neri Pozza, 1980. The Venetian civic, military and economic tolerance of foreigners is combined with a patrician aversion to people from outside the city contaminating their pure lineage (dramatised in Brabantio’s emotional response to Desdemona’s marriage). of Sadoleto's contemporaries, Venice occupied a special place on the religious map of sixteenth-century Italy. Your views could help shape our site for the future. Portia – a rich heiress 6. The forms -ella and -ino are found in other Italian data, and so seem not implausible for sixteenth century Venice. Pullan, Brian S. Rich and Poor in Renaissance Venice: The Social Institutions of a Catholic State, to 1620. “At the start of this period, the region is fragmented into city-states dominated by Venice and Milan, two great rivals whose territorial holdings extend over much of northern Italy (with frequently changing boundaries). Prezi’s Big Ideas 2021: Expert advice for the new year; Dec. 15, 2020. The influx of immigrants into the city throughout the 16th century helped to reinforce an already well-established reputation for cosmopolitanism, which wasn’t limited to the city itself. Still assumes that there was a Jewish presence already in the 12th century, an opinion that was deconstructed by Ashtor 1983, Jacoby 1979 (cited under Maritime Empire) and Ravid 1987 (cited under Status and Economic Activity). Because there has been no general overview over the history of the Jews of Venice since Roth 1930, scholars need to consult a lot of single studies about the different aspects of Jewish life in Venice and its dominions: Ashtor 1983, Pullan 1971, and Ravid 2003 about the status of the Jews, Calabi 1997 about the ghetto, Ioly Zorattini 1980 and Toaff 1996 about Venice and its terraferma empire, Steinbach 1992 about the intellectual and artistic culture. That mask-wearing period began 30 days after Easter and lasted until June. This PhD thesis (University of Hannover) of a student in Romance studies looks at the intellectual and artistic culture of the Venetian Jews and their cultural exchange with the Christian environment in the time of the ghetto. This article first appeared in Around the Globe, the membership magazine for Shakespeare's Globe. Oil paint in Venice. Shows that in Venice there was no community before the Renaissance, but despite the expulsion of 1397, “un nucleo non trascurabile di abitanti ebrei” in the Quattrocento. Of all Shakespeare’s plays, it is Othello which reflects most vividly the multi-ethnic character of the Mediterranean basin in the 16th century. Masks were also worn during the festival of Ascension, which commemorated the marriage of Venice to the sea. A traveller in Venice in the 1570s would observe ‘in this city an infinite number of men from different parts of the world, with diverse clothing, who come for trade; and truly it is a marvellous thing to see such a variety of persons, dressed in diverse habits’. By the year 2012, there were 25,806 parishes in Italy tended by 36,566 diocesan and 18,930 religions priests. The history of the Jews in the maritime empire of Venice is different from the lagoon city: the communities here are often older, larger, with more rights and a different ethnic and social composition. Steinbach, Marion. How were the Jews regarded in 16th-century England? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971. The streets were full of different costumes, languages and accents. Juden in Venedig, 1516–1797: Zwischen Isolation und Integration. As the capital city of a republic whose borders stretched for several hundred kilometers along Swiss and Germanic lands and as a mercantile city with its ports open to traders from all over the world, Venice, with a population of well over The Lives of the Jews in Venice During the 16th Century Uploaded by debdeb93 on Aug 10, 2007. This part of the “Storia d’Italia” of Einaudi (Annali 11) tries to correct the often idealized image of the Italian “asylum” at the end of the Middle Ages in three chapters: 1. Other European nations were growing more commercially confident, and maritime trade (as well as international piracy) in the Mediterranean basin flourished. I… Calabi, Donatella. “Gli ebrei a Venezia, Padova e Verona.” In Storia della cultura veneta. Saving Venice. However, the church (believed to be Saint Giacomo di Rialto) dates back no further than th… During the decade after 1602, the volume of trade moving through Venice fell forty percent Roth, Cecil. ‘Strangers’ in Venice might live peaceably amidst Venetians, but that is not to suggest that racial tensions did not exist. Currently it is getting more and more obvious that the relations between Jews and Christians were very tight in many aspects. Is Religion Necessary in Our Life? Venetian dominions such as Cyprus (where most of the action takes place) were also peopled with representatives of diverse nations. Roth 1930 was a breakthrough for the history of the Jews in Venice, albeit concentrated on the Lagoon city itself. Ties between England and Rome were cut one by one. He had no intention of changing the English religion to Lutheranism. Women in 16th-century Venice. What Shakespeare’s play gives us is a complex mixture. Revert to Islam. 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